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Search engine optimisation (SEO) concepts

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Jovana Stevanovic

Any business or an individual with a website has heard about search engine optimisation (SEO) and most likely knows it is important. But why? We will try to explain that in this article and discuss some of the most common techniques for optimising your website.

SEO is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in the search engine’s “natural” or un-paid (organic) search results, as defined on Wikipedia. SEO is one of the most important Internet marketing strategies and in order to be successful it needs to take numerous factors into consideration, such as what people search for, what kinds of keywords they use in their search, how search engines work when displaying the results, and so on.

SEO techniques

There are many SEO techniques that will help your website achieve better rankings. These techniques can be white hat, meaning they obey the search engines’ guidelines, or black hat which, as you might guess, aren’t approved by the search engines and often involve deception. We will be describing only white hat techniques here.

Optimisation of websites can be done either on the actual website, which is called on-page optimisation, or off-page. Here are a few different SEO techniques:

On-page optimisation

    • Determining keywords that people use in their searches and creating relevant content that responds to their questions and search queries.
    • Creating appropriate meta elements for the content of your website – e.g. a meta description tag is a brief description of a web page that appears in search snippets (image below).

  • Simple site navigation with a naturally flowing hierarchy is important for search engines, as well as the general usability of the website.
  • Cross linking between the pages of the same website so the user is able to reach each page.
  • URLs that contain keywords and are simple to understand.
  • Producing fresh and unique content regularly.

Off-page optimisation

  • Backlinks from websites that are ranked well. This can be achieved by creating content that gets published on credible and frequently visited websites, getting your customers, partners and other stakeholders to link to you, or creating a company blog.
  • Content that inspires sharing and natural linking on social media.
  • Submitting business listings to online directories.

How is ranking determined?

Search engines determine the importance of the result based on its popularity and relevance. There are mathematical algorithms that establish this. The most important one is PageRank, used by Google. PageRank was developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google co-founders, at Stanford University and the paper describing it was published in 1998. PageRank has evolved over the years but still continues to provide the basis for Google’s search results.


Good SEO is hard to achieve. It takes time, research and careful planning to optimise your website so it appears on the first page of the search engines’ results. Even when you achieve this, it doesn’t stop here. Search engines crawl your pages regularly which is why it is important to have fresh and updated content. And of course, stay away from black hat SEO.

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About Jovana Stevanovic

Jovana Stevanovic
Having studied, worked and lived abroad for a number of years, Jovana has developed a diverse set of skills and a unique perspective into the business world, which she applies in her current role as Marketing Automation Consultant. Her passion for online marketing and a keen interest in global marketing trends are what drives her to produce effective online campaigns for international clients in the IT sector. Jovana graduated from St. Cloud State University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Marketing and a minor in Public Relations. Jovana enjoys learning languages and is fluent in Serbian, English and Italian. Her other interests include social media, travelling and cooking.